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「星空财经」比特币十周年:从晦涩难懂到家喻户晓(附英文原文)

十年前的这一周,世界上第一批比特币诞生。从彼时起,加密货币开启了一段疯狂的旅程:价格剧烈动荡、黑客攻击以及,全球监管。兴衰沉浮,比特币从鲜为人知变成今日家喻户晓的名字。上周五,以色列交易平台eToro高级市场分析师马蒂•格林斯潘在接受CNBC采访时说:“过去10年间,一开始人们否认比特币的存在,而现在几乎所有人都明白它是什么。”

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星空编译:雪薇

The world’s first bitcoins were mined ten years ago this week.

十年前的这一周,世界上第一批比特币诞生。

Since then the cryptocurrency has been on a wild ride, surviving massive price swings, hackings and intense global scrutiny. Bitcoin’s ups and downs have helped the asset go from a little-understood concept to a household name.

从彼时起,加密货币开启了一段疯狂的旅程:价格剧烈动荡、黑客攻击以及,全球监管。兴衰沉浮,比特币从鲜为人知变成今日家喻户晓的名字。

“Over the last 10 years we’ve gone from this didn’t exist to now pretty much the entire world understands what it is, whether they agree with it or not,” Mati Greenspan, senior market analyst at trading platform eToro, told CNBC on Friday.

上周五,以色列交易平台eToro高级市场分析师马蒂格林斯潘在接受CNBC采访时说:“过去10年间,一开始人们否认比特币的存在,而现在几乎所有人都明白它是什么。”

CNBC takes a look at bitcoin’s tumultuous price history over the last decade.

CNBC回顾过去了十年比特币动荡价格史:

2009年 创世区块诞生

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The first bitcoins were mined in a block of 50 coins called “Genesis Block” on January 3, 2009. The act of mining bitcoins entails computers trying to solve complex mathematical problems to validate transactions. Computers compete to verify a group of transactions known as a “block.” The computer, or miner, that can validate the block the fastest receives a reward in bitcoins.

200913日,第一批创世区块被开采出来。“挖矿”利用计算机解决复杂数学问题来确认一个个交易。计算机竞相验证一组交易(又叫“区块”),最快验证的计算机或矿工将获得比特币奖励。

The concept of bitcoin, and its underlying blockchain technology, was laid out in a white paper published in October 2008 by Satoshi Nakamoto, whose true identity remains a mystery today. Nakamoto envisioned bitcoin as an alternative form of electronic cash that would not require the backing of the government or a financial institution.

200810月,比特币及其背后的区块链技术的概念由中本聪(Satoshi Nakamoto)在发布的白皮书中提出。直至今日,中本聪的真实身份仍是个谜。按照中本聪的构想,比特币为电子现金的另一种形式,不依靠政府或金融机构支撑。

The first-ever bitcoin transaction took place on January 9, 2009 between Nakamoto and software developer Hal Finney.

200919日,中本聪和软件开发商Hal Finney进行了第一笔比特币交易。

2010年 10000个比特币买了2个披萨

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It’s widely believed the first real-world bitcoin transaction was made in May 2010 by programmer Laszlo Hanyecz. Hanyecz spent 10,000 bitcoins on two Papa John’s pizzas; those pizzas would now be worth more than $30 million at today’s bitcoin price.

如今,人们普遍认为第一笔现实世界的比特币交易由程序员拉斯勒豪涅茨(Laszlo Hanyecz)在20105月完成。当时,豪涅茨花了1万个比特币买了两个披萨。

按照今天的比特币价格,这些披萨如今的价值超过3000万美元。

Bitcoin gained public attention later in 2010 with the creation of an exchange called Mt. Gox. The Tokyo-based exchange allowed investors to trade bitcoin, which was priced around $0.07 per coin for most of that year, according to CoinDesk.

2010年,比特币因Mt. Gox交易所的成立而引起了公众关注。CoinDesk数据显示,这家总部位于东京的交易所允许投资者交易比特币,当年大部分时间,比特币每枚价格约0.07美元。

2011年 Mt. Gox遭黑客攻击

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Bitcoin’s price hit a milestone $1 in 2011. But a series of hacks on the Mt. Gox exchange that year exposed the cryptocurrency’s vulnerability to big price swings.

2011年,比特币价格攀升至1美元/枚。但Mt. Gox交易所遭受的一系列黑客攻击暴露了比特币在价格大幅波动时的脆弱性。

2013年 首次突破1000美元

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Bitcoin topped $1,000 for the first time in November 2013 but the spike didn’t last long. The cryptocurrency would close the year trading at around $700, according to data from CoinDesk.

201311月,比特币首次突破1000美元大关,但这一峰值并未持续太久。CoinDesk数据显示,比特币今年的收盘价将在700美元左右。

2014 Mt. Gox交易所破产

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Mt. Gox, which handled roughly 70 percent of all bitcoin transactions, declared bankruptcy after hackers stole roughly half a billion dollars worth of coins. The hacking exposed the lack of regulation in the cryptocurrency and scared away many investors. By the end of 2014, the price of bitcoin barely breached $300, a level where it would stay for the next three years.

提到比特币的历史,不能不谈Mt. Gox。当年,大约70%的比特币交易都在Mt. Gox交易所进行,然而戏剧的是,黑客窃取了大约5亿美元的比特币后,Mt. Gox交易所宣布破产。黑客攻击暴露了比特币存在的监管问题,吓跑了许多投资者。到2014年底,比特币的价格仍未突破300美元,这一状况持续了三年。

2017年 转折之年

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Bitcoin momentum started to build in early 2017, when the price of a coin again crossed $1,000. More investors bought into the idea of a decentralized currency, seeking a safe-haven investment similar to gold.

比特币增势始于2017年初,比特币的价格突破1000美元。更多投资者接受了货币去中心化的想法,寻求类似黄金投资从而规避风险。

To meet growing demand, two U.S. exchanges, the CME and CBOE, created platforms for customers to trade bitcoin futures.

为了满足日益增长的需求,芝加哥商品交易所和芝加哥期权交易所为客户创建了比特币期货交易平台。

As the cryptocurrency went mainstream, frenzy ensued. Bitcoin’s price surged from around $2000 in July to nearly $20,000 in December.

加密货币成为主流,投资狂热也随之而来。比特币价格从7月份的约2000美元飙升至12月份的近2万美元。

2018年 步入寒冬

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Bitcoin’s price dropped from sky-high levels to kick off 2018 as investors fretted the bubble was bursting. Regulators around the world started to crack down on cryptocurrency trading, causing particularly volatile price swings.

投资者担心比特币泡沫破裂,导致比特币价格暴跌。世界各地的监管机构开始打击加密货币交易,此举无疑雪上加霜。

Many hedge funds, retail investors and traders who had bet big on bitcoin took heavy losses as the digital asset’s price plummeted, closing the end of the year at around $4,000.

比特币价格暴跌,许多在比特币上押下重注的对冲基金、散户投资者和交易员蒙受了巨额损失,年底比特币收于4000美元左右。

2019年 等待

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 “The last 10 years for Bitcoin, whilst broadly telling a hugely successful story, has also not been without difficulty,” wrote David Thomas co-founder of London-based cryptocurrency exchange GlobalBlock in an email to CNBC on Wednesday.

加密货币交易所GlobalBlock联合创始人戴维托马斯(David Thomas)周三在发给CNBC的一封电子邮件中写道,比特币在过去10年里取得了巨大成功,但也并非一帆风顺。

Bitcoin bulls say a comeback is due but retail investors might not want to stomach continued volatility. Regulatory uncertainty is likely to remain one key factor in bitcoin trading this year.

对比特币持乐观态度的人士表示,比特币市场即将反弹,但散户投资者可能不想承受持续的波动。监管方面的不确定性可能仍是今年比特币交易的一个关键因素。

 “If, as expected, increased regulation enters the market then Bitcoin will be opened up to a broader investor base, and with increased adoption, we expect to see volatility reduce and stability increase both of which will establish Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies further as an asset class in their own right,” added Thomas.

 “随着监管的增强,比特币将为投资者提供更广泛的投资基础。比特币应用场景增加的时候,我们希望看到波动性降低和稳定性的增加,二者将进一步将比特币和加密货币发展成为一种利于投资者的资产,托马斯认为。

注:本文由星空财经原创编译,转载请注明出处。

原文标题:Bitcoin turns 10: The obscure technology that became a household name

原文链接:https://www.cnbc.com/2019/01/04/bitcoin-turns-10-the-obscure-technology-that-became-a-household-name.html

原创文章,作者:星空财经,如若转载,请注明出处: